Science science

Science AMA Series: Hi Reddit, I’m Sarah Hörst, Professor of Planetary Science at Johns Hopkins University, here to talk about the outer solar system (especially Titan). Ask me anything!

Science AMA Series: Hi Reddit, I’m Sarah Hörst, Professor of Planetary Science at Johns Hopkins University, here to talk about the outer solar system (especially Titan). Ask me anything!

I am Sarah Hörst, Assistant Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. I study planetary atmospheric chemistry and have spent most of my career trying to unravel the mysteries of Saturn’s largest moon Titan and much of my work has been inspired. My group also studies exoplanets, Europa, Saturn, Pluto, and Venus. We are use experiments, models, and analysis of telescope and spacecraft data to improve our understanding of the role atmospheres play in the origin and evolution of life and the habitability of a planet. We are trying to answer questions like how far can organic chemistry proceed in the absence of life? You can learn more about us and our work at www.sarahhorst.com. I hope to answer lots of questions about the solar system and how we study it.

I will back at 1 pm ET to answer your questions, See you all soon!

Do you think Europa will be explored by robots in the near future? What would be the best method to explore the oceans under the crust? How do we make sure we don't contaminate any worlds that could perhaps harbor life in the future?

What solar system body do you most want a sample return mission from? And what specifically would you want to search for with it?

Space Travel is coming - Space Balloons, Short Spaceflights and Longer Space Tours of up to 10 days

Space Travel is coming - Space Balloons, Short Spaceflights and Longer Space Tours of up to 10 days

With as much progress that these independent companies have made I see it becoming more affordable to wealthy and upper middle class within 10 years. I just feel that too many other factors would make it prohibitive for anyone below those brackets in the short term.

Personally I'm EXTREMELY excited to see what this does for space exploration and satellite infrastructure. If going up and coming back becomes extremely easy then space scrapping old satellites and debris might become a thing, at the same times that's also terrifying for other reasons.

And unfortunately i doubt that any of it would be affordable in my lifetime. But I am very happy to see that more various options are becoming available

Hi topvisually, your submission has been removed for the following reason(s)

It is not scientific in nature. Posts must be about recently published peer-reviewed research.

If you feel this was done in error, or would like further clarification, please don't hesitate to message the mods.

Yes very excited!! It's happening really fast, but still the issue is it costs too much, currently. But I think in next 10 years most of the people would be able to afford - it would be that cheap!!

Poliovirus kills off cancer cells, stops tumor regrowth

Poliovirus kills off cancer cells, stops tumor regrowth
Poliovirus kills off cancer cells, stops tumor regrowth

Considering that it tricks cancer cells into releasing antigens which cause your own immune system to fight the cancer, this seems very promising and a hell of a lot better than chemo or radiation.

Some day people will look back at how we treated cancer and just gasp.

1979 - "We eliminted Polio in the US!"

2017 - "We're fighting Cancer with Polio!"

The rates did go up... but only because people weren't dying to polio first.

Can't wait until we're using cancer to fight heart disease.

Science AMA Series: We are a group pf researchers that uses the MMO game Eve Online to identify Exoplanets in telescope data, we're Project Discovery: Exoplanets, Ask us Anything!

Science AMA Series: We are a group pf researchers that uses the MMO game Eve Online to identify Exoplanets in telescope data, we're Project Discovery: Exoplanets, Ask us Anything!
Science AMA Series: We are a group pf researchers that uses the MMO game Eve Online to identify Exoplanets in telescope data, we're Project Discovery: Exoplanets, Ask us Anything!

We are the team behind Project Discovery - Exoplanets, a joint effort of Wolf Prize Winner Michel Mayor’s team at University of Geneva, CCP Games, Massively Multiplayer Online Science (MMOS), and the University of Reykjavik. We successfully integrated a huge set of light data gathered from the CoRoT telescope into the massively multiplayer game EVE Online in order to allow players to help identify possible exoplanets through consensus. EVE players have made over 38.3 million classifications of light data which are being sent back to University of Geneva to be further verified, making the project remains one of the largest and most participated in citizen science efforts, peaking at over 88,000 per hour. This is the second version of Project Discovery, the first of which was a collaboration of the Human Protein Atlas to classify human proteins for scientific research. Joining today are

Wayne Gould, Astronomer with a Master’s degree in Physics and Astrophysics who has been working at the Geneva Observatory since January and is responsible to prepare and upload all data used in the project

Attila Szantner, Founder and CEO of Massively Multiplayer Online Science (http://mmos.ch/) Who founded the company in order to connect scientific research and video games as a seamless gaming experience.

Hjalti Leifsson, Software Engineer from CCP Games, part of the team who is involved in integrating the data into EVE Online

We’d love to answer questions about our respective areas of expertise, the search for exoplanets, citizen science (leveraging human brain power to tackle data where software falls short), developing a citizen science platform within a video game, how to pick science tasks for citizen science, and more.

More information on Project Discovery: Exoplanets https://www.ccpgames.com/news/2017/eve-online-joins-search-for-real-exoplanets-with-project-disco...

Video explanation of Project Discovery in EVE:

EDIT---WRAPPED UP Thanks to all of you for your questions, it has been a great experience hearing from the players side. Once again a big thanks to all of you who have participated in the project and made the effort of preparing all this data worth it. ~Wayne Thank you all for the interesting questions. It was my first Reddit AMA - was pretty intensive, and I loved it. And thanks for the amazing contributions in Project Discovery. ~Attila Thanks to the /sub/science mods and everyone who asked questions and has contributed to Project Discovery with classifications! We're happy we can do this sort of thing FOR SCIENCE ~Hjalti and the CCP team.

As an Eve player, I know that many people are "game theorying" Project Discovery and jokingly call it "No Transits Online". How do you sift through inaccurate reporting to get real data?

*Edit: jokingly, not joking

Yes, actually this happened with the Human Atlas Project as well - the infamous Cytoplasm Scam. With Project Discovery Exoplanets we have a much harder job. Since the large majority of the lightcurves contain no transits, probably the ones trying to game the system are right - there is a high chance that one player will not see an exoplanet.

Of course we have a system where we benchmark player performance with a gold standard dataset, so if somebody just blindly selects No transit, their score will drop quickly and will not pollute the database. The data is at University of Geneva for deeper analysis and once we find the typical mistakes, we can further improve both the gold standard dataset, both the UI/tutorial part.

And we hope that for the good of science the majority of players will do their best to actually find exoplanets which will counteract those who try to game the system. ~Attila

As an Eve player, have our efforts been useful to you?

How do you filter out the "good" analysts from the folks just mashing buttons to get rewards?

What other games have you been thinking about adding MMOS to?

Human beings are amazing at pattern recognition, thanks to evolution. Which means we are better suited to notice a luminosity dip that is erratic and not always symmetrical, but still periodic. This can happen because the gravitational interactions of multiple planets can create non-periodic transits in the light curve as the orbits are perturbed. Whilst these wobbles in the periodicity are so small that the transits of one planet are still within the transit width of each other, the algorithms are unable to detect them. ~Hjalti

A method has been developed that might open up the 3D printing of all metals because engineers finally managed 3D print high-strength aluminum, solving ages-old welding problem using nanoparticles.

A method has been developed that might open up the 3D printing of all metals because engineers fi...

I thought the cracking during the cooling phase had been resolved in Direct Metal Laser Sintering via a high atmospheric pressure medium + Starting with high temperature and progressively cooling over time to allow an even set?

Or this is a different additive manufacturing method than DMLS?

They call it laser melting in the article but it sounds like you nailed it. News to me, not exactly new information though it would seem.

Yep, exactly.

except instead of removing internal stresses, it smooths out the solidifying crystals immediately post-sintering... which could have probably caused internal stresses and weakpoint anyway come to think of it.

At least that's how I understood it, but this is really just a passion topic for me. Not my field at all.

I know I know but still.. I want my toy and I want it now dangit!!!

Astronomers discover extremely hot, pitch black exoplanet

Astronomers discover extremely hot, pitch black exoplanet
Astronomers discover extremely hot, pitch black exoplanet

So correct me if I'm wrong but the atmosphere absorbs almost the entire visible spectrum​ emits that energy as blackbody radiation?

Further down:

That reflectance means that the planet essentially consumes 94% of the light that it receives from its host star

Seems the writer doesn't have the story straight.

Either I'm terribly misinformed or:

reflects 94% of the visible light given off by its host star, making it seem as if it is pitch-black in color is just wrong. It would be almost white in colour, or else it is absorbing the light....

Shouldn't science journalists know the difference between reflectance and absorption?

A million tons of feces and an unbearable stench: life near industrial pig farms - North Carolina’s hog industry has been the subject of litigation, investigation, legislation & regulation. But are its health & environmental risks finally getting too much

A million tons of feces and an unbearable stench: life near industrial pig farms - North Carolina...

Additionally, all six of the dust samples taken from the air “contained tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of hog feces DNA particles”, Rogers wrote, “demonstrating exposure to hog feces bioaerosols for clients who breathe in the air at their homes. Considering the facts, it is far more likely than not that hog feces also gets inside clients’ homes where they live and where they eat.”

Wow, their neighbors are literally breathing in pig shit. How this isn't illegal is beyond me.

Sure. But should people be eating 50 lbs of pork a year and 100 lbs of corn? It's way more complex than that.

People can eat wayyyy less meat in America, or no meat at all. It's pretty simple to at least cut back.

The nutrition between organic locally grown foods and commercially produced foods are almost identical.

A quarter of all 14-year-old girls are depressed, study shows

A quarter of all 14-year-old girls are depressed, study shows
A quarter of all 14-year-old girls are depressed, study shows

First two commenters here are shadowbanned.

'Worryingly there is evidence that parents may be underestimating their daughters' mental health needs,' she added. 'Conversely, parents may be picking up on symptoms in their sons, which boys don't report themselves. It's vital that both children and their parents can make their voices heard to maximise the chances of early identification and access to specialist support.'

While the survey study makes some interesting findings, these types of conclusions make me quite skeptical especially in light of the fact that these are not clinical diagnosis for depression, but rather self-reported survey responses.

The claim that parents are better able to identify depressive symptoms in boys and underestimate them in girls does not seem to causally follow the results of a survey, even though it is multi-year (over a decade) for two main reasons.

One, a clinical diagnosis involves blood work to test for a bevy of diseases that are known to contribute to depression, in addition to the interviews. Also, the symptoms of depression are often confounded by the symptoms of other diseases, poor lifestyle choices, etc.

Secondly, the article neglects to mention one key aspect that is different in girls than boys, and it is the fact that girls undergo puberty earlier than boys, and so far the study has only published the 2012 Age 11 findings. Yet the scientist in the article is making a blanket statement speculating the difference between depression rates in girls (25%) and boys (10%) up to the age of 11 is primarily due to how parents treat either sex while completely neglecting the onset of puberty?

It is still a great study in terms of sample size and data collection, but let's let the Age 14 data be reviewed and published before jumping to conclusions just yet.

So the criteria for depression is self identifying as depressed? If that's the case, I'm surprised the numbers aren't much higher.

Not to sound flippant, but at what point do we say that being depressed sometimes is normal?

It's weird that literally every single woman I know is on antidepressants (cue joke about it being depressing to know me). My sister, my wife, my sister-in-law, my mother-in-law, all of my friends' wives, all of my wife's friends...I can name over a dozen women right now who are permanently on antidepressants. I can't name any that I know for sure aren't.

I'm not trying to say depression isn't real or anything like that or that nobody should be taking psychiatric drugs, but that seems like an unrealistically high diagnosis rate. Apparently as of 2017, one in four American women are on anti-depressant or anti-anxiety medication. White women take antidepressants three times more often than black or Hispanic women. What is going on?

"Depressed" covers too much territory. Being 14 sucks, news at 11. Is it a solvable problem? Or is it just the nature of being 14 and trying to understand your place in the world?

Science AMA Series: I'm Mark Dallas, a Lecturer in Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience at the School of Pharmacy, University of Reading. I carry out research to better understand what goes wrong in our brains in complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and I’m here today to talk about it. AMA!

Science AMA Series: I'm Mark Dallas, a Lecturer in Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience at the School of Pharmacy, University of Reading. I carry out research to better understand what goes wrong in our brains in complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and I’m here today to talk about it. AMA!

Hi Reddit,

My name is Mark Dallas, I am a Lecturer in Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience at the School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, where I have worked for 4 years, after postdoctoral positions at the University of Leeds. I am Academic Co-ordinator for the Alzheimer’s Research UK Oxford Network, Neuroscience Theme Lead for the Physiological Society and on the editorial board of Physiology News.

My main research interest is working to understand the mechanism by which our brains change that leads to devastating diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Today 850,000 people in the UK live with dementia, and currently there is not treatment that will prevent, cure or slow down it’s progression. My experiments are looking at the so called glial cells within the brain and how they respond in the face of stressful stimuli. I believe these non-neuronal cells could provide insight and even early indications as to the onset of disease, well before clinical symptoms. Here we use a diverse array of model systems for cultured cells to animal models of disease. Only by building from cells to systems will we truly understand what is happening in our brains, the most complex computer of all.

It is my opinion that we still need some animal research to undercover the complexities of the brain and this research should be in concert with other non-animal experimental approaches. This will be fundamental to our research efforts aimed at combating Alzheimer’s disease. I wholly support the research community’s efforts to carry out this research under strict guidance that ensures responsible, high-quality research and requires the highest possible welfare standards, driven by application of the 3Rs. Indeed as part of my own research we are exploring the use of human cells as more appropriate models of brain disease.

Only by engaging the public in our research activities and how we use animals in science, will we address concerns and misunderstandings. This is something I am actively involved in through many outreach activities, including today.

During World Alzheimer’s Month, I’m here to talk about the wonders of our brains, and how they are disrupted by disease, what research is telling us about Alzheimer’s disease, the use of animal research in tackling human diseases, and I'll be back to answer questions at 10 AM ET (3 pm BST), Ask Me Anything!

This AMA is organised by Understanding Animal Research.

Thanks for all your insightful questions and I hope you found it useful. I certainly enjoyed the AMA session! I am signing off now. Best wishes, Mark

You mention that it is important to talk about how we use animals in science. What do you mean by that? What are the common misconceptions about animal model work?

To add on to this, there are a growing number of therapeutic targets for AD:

Abeta inhibitors (antibodies, GSIs, BACEs etc.)

5-HT6 agonists (mostly small molecule)

Tau inhibitors (all over the map in terms of drugs, but now we at least have a PET-capable tau antibody)

Inflammation (everything from Enbrel to more AD-specific targets)

The cholinergic system (Donepezil and next-gen drugs trying to follow in its footsteps)

Do any of these stick out to you are particularly likely/unlikely to succeed? Are there other targets you think we need to pay more attention to? Your post suggests glial cells - can you expand more on that?

I think it is important to be open about our scientific research and the models we use and to inform the public. Common misconceptions are often around the numbers used and the regulations surrounding use.

This AMA is being permanently archived by The Winnower, a publishing platform that offers traditional scholarly publishing tools to traditional and non-traditional scholarly outputs—because scholarly communication doesn’t just happen in journals.

To cite this AMA please use: https://doi.org/10.15200/winn.150591.15435

You can learn more and start contributing at authorea.com

Sleep deprivation rapidly reduces depression symptoms in nearly half of depressed patients

Sleep deprivation rapidly reduces depression symptoms in nearly half of depressed patients
Sleep deprivation rapidly reduces depression symptoms in nearly half of depressed patients

Doesn't lack of sleep increase anxiety though?

Totally. This whole article is funny and never goes into the details of the actual findings.

If you have a normal sleep schedule over a long period of time, and feel depressed, one night of 3 hour sleep will likely help.

Regular sleep deprivation, however, does not aid you. In fact, it absolutely contributes to depression and anxiety.

I know it's only through personal observation, but this is why my depression gave me insomnia. I would feel so much better and more ... myself when I was sleep deprived. I would consistently do all nighters because I would always feel better on the second day. I hated waking up in the morning because I would feel the absolute worst then.

Keep in mind, this is a meta-analysis - not an original study. Data from previous sleep studies was compiled and researchers saw that half of the sleep deprived individuals had reduced depression. But they don't know why, under what conditions, what particular factors are different between people with reduced depression vs those with no change vs those with increased depression.

Take this with a grain of salt is all I'm saying. There are a lot of unknowns.

Try one of these subthreads