The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as “an immense accumulation of commodities,”1 its unit being a single commodity. Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity. A commodity is, in the first place, an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfies human wants of some sort or another. The nature of such wants, whether, for instance, they spring from the stomach or from fancy, makes no difference.2 Neither are we here concerned to know how the object satisfies these wants, whether directly as means of subsistence, or indirectly as means of production. Every useful thing, as iron, paper, &c., may be looked at from the two points of view of quality and quantity. It is an assemblage of many properties, and may therefore be of use in various ways. To discover the various uses of things is the work of history.3 So also is the establishment of socially-recognized standards of measure for the quantities of these useful objects. The diversity of these measures has its origin partly in the diverse nature of the objects to be measured, partly in convention. The utility of a thing makes it a use value.4 But this utility is not a thing of air. Being limited by the physical properties of the commodity, it has no existence apart from that commodity. A commodity, such as iron, corn, or a diamond, is therefore, so far as it is a material thing, a use value, something useful. This property of a commodity is independent of the amount of labour required to appropriate its useful qualities. When treating of use value, we always assume to be dealing with definite quantities, such as dozens of watches, yards of linen, or tons of iron. The use values of commodities furnish the material for a special study, that of the commercial knowledge of commodities.5 Use values become a reality only by use or consumption: they also constitute the substance of all wealth, whatever may be the social form of that wealth. In the form of society we are about to consider, they are, in addition, the material depositories of exchange value. Exchange value, at first sight, presents itself as a quantitative relation, as the proportion in which values in use of one sort are exchanged for those of another sort,6 a relation constantly changing with time and place. Hence exchange value appears to be something accidental and purely relative, and consequently an intrinsic value, i.e., an exchange value that is inseparably connected with, inherent in commodities, seems a contradiction in terms.7 Let us consider the matter a little more closely. A given commodity, e.g., a quarter of wheat is exchanged for x blacking, y silk, or z gold, &c. – in short, for other commodities in the most different proportions. Instead of one exchange value, the wheat has, therefore, a great many. But since x blacking, y silk, or z gold &c., each represents the exchange value of one quarter of wheat, x blacking, y silk, z gold, &c., must, as exchange values, be replaceable by each other, or equal to each other. Therefore, first: the valid exchange values of a given commodity express something equal; secondly, exchange value, generally, is only the mode of expression, the phenomenal form, of something contained in it, yet distinguishable from it.
Seize the means of production!
Why can I hear hotline miami
The correct answer is always Communism.
The correct answer is hemoglobin?
Oh shit I didn't read that far down what a fool I have made of myself
ALWAYS READ ALL THE ANSWERS BEFORE YOU MAKE A DECISION.
Ha, jokes on them, nobody wants me.
I’m probably gonna keep writing essays about memes, expect maybe one or two a week from today onwards. If you want me to do any specific topics or you have anything you think I can do better then just drop me a comment or send me a message. Here’s a link to the google doc, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1FIUih1w0cihPYkQu7ck-eaumjtyx35PUs0Nf3lx2nwA/edit?usp=sharing
Edit: O shit waddup! I actually hit 3K upvotes on this! Thanks folks!
Damn GTA 6 looks lit
dat boi would have won
What the hell context could there be for dat boi? What the hell context is there for most shit in this sub? I don't even know what I'm laughing at half the time. It doesn't even matter what the pictures are, I'm just staring into the void and laughing at anything. I just want these laughs to be genuine again.
I always upvote drake and josh
Chef: Your food is ready Student athlete: Ready? ❌ I'll never be ready 🙅😏 Won't stop ❌ never stop ✋🏾 grinding 🤔 I'm chasing my dreams 😂😂 RIP grandma 👵 Corinthians 2:4